The Ultimate Guide to Caring for a Gopher Snake

gopher snake as pet

As an experienced reptile owner, I understand the importance of providing the best possible care for our scaly friends. Whether you are a first-time snake owner or looking to add a gopher snake to your collection, this guide will provide you with all the necessary information to ensure your pet is happy and healthy.

Gopher snakes, also known as bullsnakes, are a popular choice among reptile enthusiasts due to their calm temperament and relatively low maintenance requirements. However, like all pets, they require proper care and attention to thrive in captivity.

In this guide, we will cover everything from setting up their habitat, feeding them, handling and socializing them, and caring for their health. We will also address some common myths and misconceptions about gopher snakes as pets.

Key Takeaways:

  • Gopher snakes are popular pets due to their docile nature and low maintenance requirements.
  • Proper care and attention are necessary for gopher snakes to thrive in captivity.
  • Topics covered in this guide include habitat setup, feeding, handling, health care, lifespan, and common misconceptions.

Why Choose a Gopher Snake as a Pet?

As a pet owner, choosing the right animal to share your home with is a significant decision. While there are plenty of popular options out there, have you considered a gopher snake? Here are a few reasons why you should:

  1. Docile nature: Gopher snakes are known for their calm and gentle demeanor, making them a great choice for beginners and experienced pet owners alike.
  2. Low maintenance requirements: Gopher snakes are relatively low maintenance, requiring minimal attention and upkeep compared to other pets.

Fun fact: Gopher snakes are also known for their unique patterns and colors, which can range from vibrant oranges and reds to earthy browns and greens. Some even have distinct markings that resemble a rattlesnake, making them a convincing imposter.

Habitat Setup for Your Gopher Snake

Creating an optimal habitat for your gopher snake is critical to their health and well-being. Below are guidelines on how to set up a suitable habitat for your pet:

Enclosure Size Gopher snakes need ample space to move around. A 20-gallon tank is the minimum requirement for hatchlings, while adults need at least a 40-gallon tank.
Bedding Provide a substrate that is easy to clean and holds humidity, such as aspen shavings or reptile carpet. Avoid using cedar or pine shavings as they can be harmful to your snake’s health.
Temperature A temperature gradient is essential for your gopher snake. The basking spot should be around 90-95°F, while the cooler side should be around 75-80°F. Use a reptile heat lamp or under-tank heating pad to regulate the temperature.
Humidity Gopher snakes require a moderate humidity level of around 40-60%. A humidity gauge can be used to measure this and a water dish can help maintain humidity levels.
Hiding Spots Gopher snakes need a few hiding spots in their enclosure to feel secure. These can be anything from commercial snake hides to cardboard boxes or overturned flower pots.
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It’s important to regularly clean your gopher snake’s enclosure to prevent the buildup of bacteria. Replace the substrate and water dish at least once a week and spot clean any soiled areas as needed. By providing a suitable habitat for your gopher snake, you’ll ensure they thrive in their new home.

Feeding Your Gopher Snake

As carnivores, gopher snakes require a diet of whole prey items, such as rodents and birds. The size of the prey should be proportional to the snake’s girth, with younger snakes being fed more frequently than adults. A general rule of thumb is to feed juvenile snakes every 5-7 days, and adults every 10-14 days.

It is important to only offer pre-killed prey to your gopher snake, as live prey can injure or kill the snake. To prevent the spread of disease, it is also recommended to only feed your snake commercially raised prey that is frozen and thawed before feeding.

When feeding your gopher snake, it is best to place the prey item in its enclosure using tongs or forceps. This can help prevent the snake from associating your hand with food and accidentally biting you during handling.

Assisting with Shedding

During shedding, your gopher snake may appear dull and have a bluish-white haze over its eyes. It is important to ensure a proper shedding process to avoid complications or skin damage. Providing a humidity box can help your snake shed more easily. A humidity box can be created by placing a plastic container with a lid filled with dampened sphagnum moss or paper towels in the enclosure. The box should provide a snug fit for your snake while allowing for ventilation.

If your snake is having trouble shedding, you can also assist by gently rubbing a damp towel over its body to help loosen any remaining skin.

Handling and Socializing Your Gopher Snake

As a docile species, gopher snakes are generally easy to handle and make good pets for those looking for a snake to interact with. Regular handling can also help socialize your snake and minimize stress.

When handling your gopher snake, it’s important to support their entire body to avoid injuring their spine. Start by gently picking up the snake from below, letting them wrap around your hand if they wish. Avoid sudden movements or loud noises that may startle or stress your snake.

It’s recommended to handle your gopher snake for a few minutes at a time, gradually increasing the duration as they become more comfortable. Be aware of their body language and if they start to show signs of stress, such as hissing or striking, it’s best to put them back in their enclosure.

Aside from handling, providing mental stimulation and enrichment for your gopher snake can also promote socialization and reduce stress. Consider adding climbing opportunities or puzzle feeders to their enclosure.

Remember, even though gopher snakes are generally docile, they still have the potential to bite if they feel threatened or stressed. Always be respectful of your snake’s boundaries and take measures to prevent accidents, such as washing your hands before and after handling.

Gopher Snake Health and Common Issues

Gopher snakes are generally healthy and hardy snakes, but like all pets, they can suffer from health problems. As a responsible owner, it’s important to be aware of the signs of illness and know when to seek veterinary care.

One of the most common health issues that gopher snakes experience is respiratory infections. Symptoms of a respiratory infection include wheezing, discharge from the nose or mouth, and lethargy. If you notice these symptoms, it’s important to get your snake to a veterinarian experienced in reptile care as soon as possible.

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Gopher snakes can also suffer from mites and ticks, which can cause skin irritation and, in severe cases, anemia. Be sure to regularly check your snake for any signs of parasites, such as small dots on their skin or a decrease in activity and appetite.

An additional issue that gopher snakes may experience is shedding problems. If your snake is having difficulty shedding, you can help by providing a humid hide or placing them in a damp towel for a short period of time. Never attempt to force off any retained skin, as this can harm your snake’s skin or cause infections.

To keep your gopher snake healthy, it’s important to provide a clean and properly heated enclosure, as well as a balanced diet. Additionally, make sure to handle your snake regularly and provide plenty of opportunities for exercise and mental stimulation.

Gopher Snake Lifespan and Size

As a gopher snake owner, it’s important to understand the typical lifespan and size range of these fascinating creatures.

Gopher snakes have an average lifespan of 12-20 years in captivity, although some have been known to live into their mid-20s with proper care. Their size can vary depending on species, but most adult gopher snakes range from 3-6 feet in length. Some larger species, such as the bullsnake, can reach up to 8 feet in length.

Factors such as diet, exercise, and habitat conditions can affect the growth and overall health of your gopher snake. It’s important to provide a spacious enclosure and a balanced diet to ensure your snake reaches its full potential.

It’s also worth noting that gopher snakes may go through periods of rapid growth, often referred to as growth spurts. During these times, they may require more food and larger enclosures to accommodate their size.

Gopher Snake Enrichment and Mental Stimulation

While gopher snakes are generally low-maintenance pets, providing them with enrichment and mental stimulation is crucial for their physical and mental well-being. Here are some suggestions for keeping your gopher snake active and entertained:

  • Provide climbing opportunities: Gopher snakes are excellent climbers and enjoy exploring their environment. Adding branches, logs, or shelves to their enclosure will give them the opportunity to climb and exercise.
  • Offer puzzle feeders: Feeding your gopher snake in a puzzle feeder will stimulate their natural hunting instincts and keep them mentally stimulated. You can easily create a DIY puzzle feeder by hiding their food in a cardboard tube or egg carton.
  • Introduce new scents: Gopher snakes have a keen sense of smell and enjoy exploring new scents. You can offer them a variety of scents by placing herbs, flowers, or even a piece of your clothing in their enclosure.

Remember to always supervise your gopher snake during enrichment activities and ensure their safety at all times.

Gopher Snake Shedding and Grooming

As a gopher snake owner, it is important to understand the shedding process and how to help your snake through it. Gopher snakes shed their skin periodically throughout their lives as a way to grow and remove any parasites or old skin.

Signs that your gopher snake is about to shed include duller skin, blue or milky eyes, and a lack of appetite. When shedding, your snake may also become more irritable or anxious due to temporary blindness.

To assist your gopher snake in the shedding process, make sure to provide a humid hide, which is an enclosed space filled with damp moss or paper towels. This will help loosen the skin and make it easier for your snake to shed. You can also mist the enclosure to increase humidity levels.

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Once your snake has completed shedding, make sure to check for any remaining pieces of stuck skin, especially around the eyes and tail. If there are any retained pieces, you can use a damp cloth to gently remove them.

In terms of grooming, gopher snakes do not require much maintenance. You can give them a gentle wipe down with a damp cloth if they get especially dirty, but otherwise, they are self-sufficient in keeping themselves clean.

Common Myths and Misconceptions about Gopher Snakes as Pets

I’ve heard a lot of myths and misconceptions about these fascinating creatures. Here are some of the most common ones debunked:

    1. Myth: Gopher snakes are venomous like rattlesnakes.

Fact: Gopher snakes are non-venomous and pose no threat to humans. They may mimic the behavior of rattlesnakes to deter predators, but they do not have venomous fangs.

    1. Myth: Gopher snakes are aggressive and bite their owners.

Fact: Gopher snakes are docile and rarely show aggression towards humans. In fact, they are generally considered one of the most manageable snake species to own as a pet. However, like any animal, they may bite if they feel threatened or stressed.

    1. Myth: Gopher snakes are difficult to care for and require a lot of attention.

Fact: Gopher snakes are relatively low-maintenance pets. They do require specific habitat and feeding requirements, but once you have those set up, they do not require a lot of attention or interaction.

    1. Myth: Gopher snakes are not good pets for children.

Fact: While it is important to never leave a child unattended with any pet, gopher snakes can make great pets for children. They are generally docile and easy to handle, and can teach children about responsible pet ownership and the importance of respecting all animals.

By dispelling these and other myths about gopher snakes, we can better understand and appreciate these fascinating creatures as pets.


In conclusion, owning a gopher snake can be a rewarding and fulfilling experience for any pet owner. Not only are they low-maintenance and easy to care for, but they also have unique patterns and are docile in nature.

To provide optimal care for your gopher snake, it is important to set up an appropriate habitat with the right temperature and humidity, and offer appropriate hiding spots. Additionally, understanding their dietary needs and feeding them appropriately, handling them regularly for socialization, and providing mental stimulation and enrichment will ensure they lead a happy and healthy life.

It is also important to be aware of the common myths and misconceptions surrounding gopher snakes as pets, and to dispel any false beliefs.

If you are considering adding a gopher snake to your household, remember to prioritize their care and ensure that you are prepared to commit to being a responsible and attentive owner. With proper care and attention, a gopher snake can make an excellent and rewarding pet.


Q: Why should I choose a gopher snake as a pet?

A: Gopher snakes make great pets because of their docile nature, low maintenance requirements, and unique patterns.

Q: How should I set up a habitat for my gopher snake?

A: To create an optimal habitat for your gopher snake, you will need to consider enclosure size, bedding, temperature, humidity, and provide hiding spots.

Q: What should I feed my gopher snake?

A: Gopher snakes require a diet of appropriate prey items, fed on a regular schedule using proper feeding techniques.

Q: How should I handle and socialize my gopher snake?

A: It is important to handle your gopher snake regularly for socialization, using safe and proper handling techniques.

Q: What are common health issues that gopher snakes may face?

A: Gopher snakes may experience common health issues. It is important to recognize signs of illness, take preventive measures, and seek veterinary care when necessary.

Q: How long do gopher snakes live and how big do they get?

A: Gopher snakes have an average lifespan and size range. Various factors can influence their growth and longevity.

Q: How can I provide mental stimulation for my gopher snake?

A: To enrich your gopher snake’s environment, you can provide climbing opportunities and use puzzle feeders to provide mental stimulation.

Q: What is the shedding process for gopher snakes?

A: Gopher snakes go through shedding. It is important to recognize signs of an upcoming shed and assist in the process. Grooming needs should also be addressed.

Q: What are common myths and misconceptions about gopher snakes as pets?

A: There are common myths and misconceptions about gopher snakes as pets. It is important to provide accurate information and dispel false beliefs.

Featured image: Bill Bouton, CC BY-SA 2.0, via Wikimedia Commons
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